Menneske
og teknologi

Der er to mål: At brugeren kan opdage noget nyt og spændende når han bruger dit værk, og at han kan bruge det let, flydende og ubesværet.

People
and technology

There are two goals: That the user discovers something new and exciting when using your work, and that he or she can flow through it without feeling any effort.

Indhold på danskDenne website er 13 år gammel. Se det oprindelige layout

BogomslagBøger om mennesker og teknik: Se under Egne bøger

Praktiske beskrivelser af læsning, skrivning og dokument design:
-> Content marketing site

Contents in EnglishInattentive use of electronic equipment: How to design equipment for real human beings. My Ph.D. thesis.


Ny bog: Teknologi for EUD og EUX - en konkret og praktisk håndbog i produktudvikling. Den er også nyttig for elever på IT- og andre uddannelser som skal i gang med projekter hvor de skal udvikle noget. Se mere

Det væsentlige problem er manglen på viden (bragt i Jyllandsposten 20. august 2010). Om årsagerne til at den digitale tinglysning og andre projekter er gået galt.

Regulering af konflikter mellem tekniske muligheder og forretningsmæssige krav. Bragt i Konflikthåndtering i IT projekter - mediation som mulighed, red. af Pia Deleuran. Jurist og Økonomforbundets Forlag marts 2011 (af ophavsretlige grunde kan artiklen ikke downloades.)

De fleste projekter er i dag baseret på standardsoftware eller platforme, som kun i begrænset omfang kan tilpasses til organisationens aktuelle behov. Derfor kan det vise sig i løbet af et projekt, at det ikke er muligt at realisere de gevinster som er motivationen for det. Denne artikel beskriver en model for udviklingen af systemet og for kontraktlig regulering, som gør det muligt at regulere konflikten mellem de tekniske muligheder og forretningsmæssige krav.

Use of Sense-Making Methodology in a requirement process.Describes a fast and effective way of capturing needs and producing requirements for an IT system. Presented at the Ninth Danish Human-Computer Interaction Research Symposium. Aarhus December 14, 2009.

Militæret og ny teknologi Måske skyldes for løbet omkring Jægerbogen og den arabiske oversættelse delvist at den nye teknologi gør det muligt at arbejde hurtigere end man kan tænke. Bragt i Jyllandsposten 10. oktober 2009

I efteråret 2009 nåede jeg at skrive fire nyhedsbreve, før jeg flyttede skrivningen over på min blog på blog på Version2:

11. november: Der er stadig brug for brugbarhed
3. november: Det manglende tal i en business case
27. oktober: Du kan få en jægersag i dit firma
22. oktober: Hvordan hjælper vi 400.000 IT-analafabeter

The Challenges of HCI research. About the actual situation of my research area, in particular how to produce research that is more useful for practitioners. Presented at the eigth Danish HCI Research Symposium, Aalborg 20th November 2008.

Godt IT giver godt KU  Hvordan nye IT-systemer kan hjælpe studerende, undervisere og forskere. Bragt i Universitetsavisen 11. juni 2008

Usikker afstemning. Om problemerne ved elektronisk afstemning. Måske havde det en virkning. I hvert fald meddelte Karen Jespersen kort efter at hun ikke ville give tilladelse til elektroniske afstemninger ved kommunalvalget. Bragt i Jyllandsposten den 7. maj 2008.

Teknik og IT er blevet alt for kompliceret - og det gør det sværere for unge at arbejde med teknik og at dyrke en interesse for det. Der er dog nogle løsninger på problemet, og de er beskrevet i denne kronik. Bragt i Ingeniøren den 14. marts 2008.

The mobile phone as control room of life. Presented at HFT 2008: The 21st International symposium on Human Factors in Telecommunication, Malaysia 17-20 March 2008 (for copyright reasons, no version for download is available).

A mobile phone has today separate lists for calls, send and received SMS and e-mail messages. It is therefore difficult to find all information that is related to a particular point in time or a particular event. To solve that problem, this paper describes a concept that gives the user one undivided overview of the part of his or her life that involves the use of the mobile phone. This is similar to the sort of overview used by an operator in a control room - therefore the title.

Power Distance and User-Centred Design in a Traditional Culture.This study describes the challenges faced by designers and users of software in a developing country with a traditional culture, and it shows how economic and cultural differences may affect the design and use of software in unexpected manners. It is based on obsevations and interviews with twenty employees in three different administrations and on interviews or conversations with nine other informants. Presented at the Seventh Danish HCI Research Symposium, November 22, 2007.

Stories with Emotions and Conflicts Drive Development of Better Interactions in Industrial Software Projects. This paper describes how stories with emotions and conflicts were accepted as inputs to the definition of requirements in two industrial software projects, and how managers regarded stories as more credible than concise reports.

The paper describes how it is possible to use stories with emotions and conflicts in industrial software projects, characteristics of the most useful stories, and how stories can be used to facilitate a dialogue between users and developers. Presented at the OZCHI 2007 - Australasian Computer-Human Interaction Conference - 28-30 November 2007 where it was nominated as best paper (but did not get the prize.)

Hvordan HTX-radioen fik sine store knapper. Denne bærbare radio har været brugt i næsten tyve år på rangerterrænet ved Hovedbanegården. Det er noget af en rekord for elektronik. Læs hvorfor dens design blev så vellykket. Bragt i Entreprise Nyt juni 2007

Effektiv metode gør IT-folk til brobyggere. Du kan på to dage identificere de faktorer som kan betyde at en ny version af et produkt bliver en succes. Bragt i Prosabladet 4, april 2007.

Information and Function Chunks as Building Blocks in the Control Room of Life (For copyright reasons no downlaod is available). We still organize information on the Internet on web-sites and pages similar to books and pages in them. In this paper I therefore suggest a more flexible way of organizing information in chunks or logical units.

I describe how a moderne mobile phone can be seen as a control room of life, where the users receives messages from others that he or she sometimes must act upon, keep an overview and interacts with his or her environment and tries to influence it in different manners. The article is published in Designing for Networked Communications Strategies and Development, ed. by Simon B. Heilesen and Sisse Siggaard Jensen, Idea Group Publishing 2007.

Sense-Making Methodology: Learn What Users Understand is Important. Sense.-making is an extremely effective interview method. In particular when you want quickly to identify the two or three most serious problems experienced by users of an interface. And if you can solve them, your new and improved product may very well be a success. This paper is based on use of Sense-Making in four different projects and a total of more than thirty interviews. Presented at the Sixth Danish HCI Research Symposium, Aarhus, Denmark, November 15, 2006.

The specialist and the non-barking dog.I have participated in a project where dr. Brenda Dervin has interviewed a large number of academics and practitioners about their co-operation and about co-operation between experts in HCI, information systems and medias. I was first interviewed and then asked together with a large number of other to write an essay based on some or all of the transcribed interviews. This is the result.

Undgå misforståelser i softwareudvikling - Nogle gode råd til når man bruger skriftlig kommunikation i softwareudvikling. Artiklen er en forkortet og mere letlæst version af resultaterne i artiklen: The reader creates a personal meaning.... Bragt i Computerworld den 2. december 2005.

Classification of descriptions used in software and interaction design, presented at the 5th Danish Human-Computer Interaction Research Symposium, Copenhagen Business School 2005.

This is a systematic classification that can cover all the types of written documents that are used in software development, from descriptions in UML of the object-oriented structure of the software to stories with emotions and conflicts that describe the users experience when using it.

Brugbarhedens historie. Området er langt ældre end de fleste forestiller sig. Faktisk blev der arbejdet med brugbarhed for to hundrede og halvtreds år siden i Danmark. Bragt i Aktuel Naturvidenskab, 4 (september) 2005.

Interaction design for countries with a traditional culture: A comparative study of income levels and cultural values, in People and Computers IX ­ The Bigger Picture ed. by Tom McEwan, David Benyon & Jan Gulliksen, Springer UK 2005 . Presented at the British HCI conference HCI-2005 in September 2005 in Edinburgh. PDF-version for download - the layout is different from the typeset version.

This is an empirical study of cultural differences between Philippines and Denmark, and it describes how these differences may affect the use and design of software in the two countries. The results indicate that people in the Philippines want the same level of reliability as in Denmark, but that they often becase of a lower income are forced to used equipment of a lower quality in humid and dusty conditions. The results also show that the protection of private information is regarded as much less important in Philippines than in Denmark, which for instance may have consequences when information processing is out-sourced to a low-income country with a more traditional culture.

The reader creates a personal meaning: A comparative study of scenarios and human-centered stories, in People and Computers IX ­ The Bigger Picture ed. by Tom McEwan, David Benyon & Jan Gulliksen, Springer UK 2005. Presented at the British HCI conference HCI-2005 in September 2005 in Edinburgh. PDF-version for download - the layout is different from the typeset version.

There are many books about how people are supposed to write in order to be understood, but there are only few studies of how readers actually perceive what they read. This is an empirical study of how technical descriptions, conventional scenarios and stories with emotional and dramatic elements are understood by softsare developers. The results show that software developers create a personal understanding of written descriptions by combining parts of them with their personal experiences, and it appears that this is a creative process that is almost as complex as the writing of a text. The results also show that both scenarios and stories improve their understanding of technical information, and that in particular stories with emotions and dramatic elements improve the reader's understanding of contexts and situations of use. Finally the study shows that software developers may find it comparatively easy to write stories with emotional and dramatic elements. They may actually find it more difficult to write technical descriptions of the same situations of use.

Rekvisitter - hvordan vi laver rollespil med mobiltelefoner og digitale kameraer. Bragt i Weekendavisen den 18. februar 2005

How usability practitioners can get their suggestions implemented in industrial software design. (Adobe Acrobat for download). Presented at the fourth Danish HCI research symposium in Aalborg, November 2004.

Usability practitioners often establish a usability lab or department, that is a little outside the normal development process, or they try to work with development departments, and often they feel that it is almost impossible to get their suggestions implemented in the software that is being developed.

In this paper I describe my results from 11 years of usability work with 27 different projects including the development of mobile phones, professional electronic equipment, large professional systems and web sites and web-based applications. The results show that I had the best results when I worked together with marketing departments: Marketing and usability both try to satisfy the customers, both use methods that are adapted from psychology and anthropology, and it is often marketing that decides the requirements of a new product. In contrast, a development department is technically oriented, it aims at producing something that fulfils the requirements within a given time, and usability work is then often seen only as something that may delay the development process.

Working paper: Writing and Using Human-centered Stories in Interaction Design. (Adobe Acrobat for download). Such stories are driven by the emotions and feelings of the characters in them. They are in particular useful when discussing how a new interface may be used, and deciding what it shall be possitble to do with it.

The stories are comparatively easy to write, the writing tends to generate ideas for new functions and features, they facilitate discussions, and compared to traditional scenarios they tend to be more realistic and cause fewer misunderstandings. In this paper I give some practical advice on how to write and use them. It is based on my research and experience from teaching two courses for computer science students.

Sharing and Learning through Pair Writing of Scenarios (For copyright reasons no download is available). I am third author, First and Second authors are Adi B. Tedjasaputra and Eunice Ratna Sari. Presented at Nordichi 2004 in Tampere, Finland, October 2004.

This is an empirical study consisting of five sessions where scenarios are written by two writers working in unison, for instance a usability specialist and a software developer, making it possible for them to explore and reach a common understanding of requirements and design ideas. The study demonstrates that it is possible to produce scenarios through Pair Writing and it gives examples of how two writers can inspire, adjust and learn from each other through Pair Writing.

The Lack of Intelligent Design in Mobile Phones. (For copyright reasons no download is available). Presented at the MobileHCI2004 conference in Glasgow, September 2004.

This paper describes how the organization of the development of mobile phones may reduce usability and user satisfaction, and it suggests possible improvements to the development process. It compares the evolution of mobile phones with the evolution of animals and plants, and it describes how the evolution of mobile phones is driven by the competition between specific characteristics of phones; similar to the way organic evolution is driven by the competition between genes. It describes how characteristics of mobile phones compete both in markets and in development organizations, and criteria that determine which characteristics survive and spread in devel-opment organizations.

How to Write Small Stories and Big Novels and the Computer Tools Needed for Doing It (Adobe Acrobat for download) Presented at the CADE (Computers in Art and Design Education) in Copenhagen, June 2004

The study describes the process of fiction writing based on literature and interviews with six Danish writers. It describes how fiction writers use freewriting, where they generate texts, plots and characters as they are written, and then later organize and revise the results. It describes the importance of capturing text as fast as it is created in the mind, and the relation between writing and psychological well being. Based on literature and the interviews, the study describes the characteristics of a good computer tool for fiction writing and eleven specific functions, which may facilitate fiction writing and also benefit writers of articles and non-fiction.

Sex, magt og popularitet med IT. Kronik bragt i Jyllandsposten den 17. marts 2004. Den fortæller hvorfor IT er vanedannende og hvorfor mere IT kan føre til øgede omkostninger.

Perception of Human-centered Stories and Technical Descriptions when Analyzing and Negotiating Requirements (For copyright reasons no download is available). Presented at the Interact 2003 conference in Zürich, September 2003).

The study is explorative, using mixed qualitative and quantitative methods and with a total of 10 participants. The participants accepted the use of stories and strongly preferred stories with emotional and dramatic elements. The study indicates that human-centered stories encourage and facilitate detailed discussions of social aspects and situations of use, whereas technical descriptions may block such discussions. The study indicate that stories are not a reliable mean of changing the attitudes of the readers, and it shows that stories are not better than technical descriptions for communicating factual or technical information.

Using Creative Writing for developing Realistic Scenarios(For copyright reasons no download is available. Presented at the HCII2003 conference in Crete, June 2003.)

A review of 21 scenarios used in system development shows that they fail to take into account the emotions and motivations of the users. Therefore they give an overly optimistic impression of how the described systems will function in actual situations of use.

When was the beginning of Ergonomics and Human Factors (For copyright reasons no download is available. Published in Ergonomics in Design, 2002, 2.) -

In 1759 usabilty was already a selling point in Denmark, the first comparative test of usability was done in Denmark in 1770, and in 1887 we had the first Danish consultant in Human Factors with a scientific background.

The telephone comes to a Filipino village(For copyright reasons no download is available. Published in Perpetual Contact, ed. By James E. Katz & Mark Aakhus, Cambridge University Press, 2002.)

Describes how a phone call may take two days, when you have to arrange in advance that the person you want to call is waiting at the only phone in the village, and how the phone is essential when filipinos shall stay in touch with family members working abroad (about 10 % of the Philippine population works abroad, many of them are women with children they have left behind with their family).

Telecommunication as a mean of expression.We use e-mails and SMS to express thoughts and feelings and as a powerful political media. Presented at the Human Factors in Telecommunication 2001 symposium. Read what telecommunication does to our experiences and ability to express them. Adobe Acrobat for download.

Mobile devices as props in Daily Role Playing, or how to pick up friends using a digital camera. Presented at Human-computer Interaction with mobile devices at IHM-HCI2001 in Lille. Adobe Acrobat for download.

Low cost test of menu texts: This may make life easier for both users and designers of web pages. It is a fast and efffective method for testing words and menu texts on web pages, presented on the Nordichi2000 conference in Stockholm, october 2000.

Design principles - if you master these, it is all you need to know about user friendly design.

Inattentive use of electronic equipment: How to write and design equipment for real human beings.

Multi-dimensional web design How to make easier to use and more pleasant structures for web-pages.

Kollektiv styring af førerløse tog: Dette indlæg blev bragt i Ingeniøren den 11. august 2000. Det handler om et førerløst, totalt ubemandet, tog, og hvordan passagerne risikerer at komme i klemme.

Uopmærksom brug af elektronisk udstyr: (endnu ikke en rigtig bog):
Når vi først har lært at lave noget, er vi ikke længere opmærksomme på, hvordan vi gør det. Et helt nyt syn på hvordan vi tænker, handler og oplever verden.

Når tingene driller (artikel): Mange dagligdags brugsgenstande er ikke udformet til uopmærksom brug. Her er nogle eksempler og deres konsekvenser.

Computeren og beskidte solbriller (artikel): Der er nogle ting som computere ikke er gode til. Læs om dem, så får du måske lyst til at gå en tur.

Forskere, informationsbehandling og den menneskelige faktor (artikel) Ingen anti-virus programmer, ingen sikkerhedskopier og gode chancer for regnefejl.

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